SAVAGE BRAIN FUEL
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Benefits of Acetyl L-Carnitine
- May Enhance cognition.
- Involved in the metabolism of food into energy.
- May improve visual memory and attention.
Acetyl L-Carnitine is a stabilized and more absorbable form of the amino acid L-Carnitine. Acetyl L-Carnitine plays an important role in protecting and supporting brain and muscle function. As an antioxidant, Acetyl L-Carnitine protects neurons from damage caused by superoxide radicals.
Acetyl L-Carnitine is involved in aspects of neuronal metabolism because its molecular structure resembles the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementing with Acetyl L-Carnitine may improve acetylcholine production and stimulation of protein and membrane phospholipid synthesis.
Improves exercise capacity and fat loss:
Acetyl L-Carnitine facilitates the metabolism of fatty acids for energy generation. A greater reliance on fat for energy can result in a sparing of muscle glycogen, an enhancement of exercise performance and a reduction in stored body fat. Acetyl L-Carnitine has profound effects on endurance and exercise performance by reducing the respiratory exchange ratio and reducing lactic acid accumulation in muscles extending exercise capacity before fatigue.
- Supports brain function.
- May improve mental energy levels.
- Enhances athletic performance.
L-Tyrosine is an essential amino acid which supports brain function. It can be converted by neurons in the brain into the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), hormones which are depleted by stress, excessive work and certain drugs. By replenishing norepinephrine in the brain, mental energy levels are enhanced and a feeling of contentment often occurs.
L-Tyrosine is an essential amino acid which supports brain function. It can be converted by neurons in the brain into the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), hormones which are depleted by stress, excessive work and certain drugs. By replenishing norepinephrine in the brain, mental energy levels are enhanced and a feeling of contentment often occurs. L-tyrosine boosts certain neurotransmitters in the brain and has been used to support stress reduction and depression. L-Tyrosine is converted in the body into other key biologic compounds, including L-dopa, CoQ10, thyroid hormones and melanin.
Tyrosine can also enhance athletic performance. L-Tyrosine is an important component of protein and helps form the bioactive factors vital to cellular growth and maintenance. Tyrosine supplementation has the potential to increase athletic performance in a few ways. One of the mechanisms possibly contributing to fatigue during exercise is an increase in central serotonin levels and an increase in the ratio of serotonin to dopamine. Tyrosine may help decrease this ratio and compete with tryptophan (the amino acid precursor to serotonin) at the blood-brain barrier. Increased dopaminergic activity may decrease the perception of fatigue. Also, during highly stressful conditions, catecholamine levels can become depleted, and tyrosine may be particularly useful under these conditions.
CDP Cholinea and Alpha GPC- As people grow more concerned about caring for their bodies, a greater emphasis has been placed on caring for the brain. The brain, after all, acts as the control center for the rest of the body. If something malfunctions at the level of the nervous system, chances are it will affect many other systems as well. One of the most important chemicals for maintaining proper brain function is choline.
Perhaps you remember being told when you were younger how healthy liver was for you, maybe even going so far as being forced to eat it as a child. While your parents may not have known the specifics as to why, liver is one food that happens to be rich in choline. Eating it would have positive effects on brain development. Now that you’re older, you may have developed a taste or at least tolerance for liver, but there are other ways to help with the ingestion of choline. Many dietary supplements now place an emphasis on compounds that serve as a rich source of choline. Two of the most popular ingredients are citicoline and alpha GPC. So what’s the difference between the two? The following may prove useful.
What is Citicoline?
Citicoline (cytidine diphosphocholine) is also known as CDP choline. This compound has neuroprotective properties and is made up of choline and cytidine. As a plentiful source of choline, citicoline helps to transport dopamine, increasing its release into the brain. While choline may help with brain function, cytidine can also be useful once it is converted into uridine. A citicoline dosage is well regarded as being safe and extremely effective and can be quite powerful when combined with other supplements.
The benefits of citicoline could possibly be tied with memory and brain functions. In particular, citicoline may play a role in mitigating the effects of memory loss. Citicoline also has uses in helping people improve their learning faculties and enhancing attention. In essence, it’s possible this compound could lead to better focus and concentration, possibly helping people combat distractions and keep focused on what they want or need to do. At the cellular level, citicoline has been found to improve overall neuronal membrane integrity while also leading to a reduction in neuronal death.
What is Alpha GPC?
Alpha GPC (alpha glycerophosphocholine), like citicoline, may also aid neuroprotective activity. It’s a compound composed of glycerophosphate and choline. Alpha GPC is a natural compound that can also work well with other nootropics. Alpha GPC works fast and helps deliver choline to the brain and actually increases the production of acetylcholine along with cell membrane phospholipids. It’s possible the compound may also increase the release of dopamine and calcium.
Alpha GPC Benefits
Alpha GPC brings with it a number of possible benefits, one of the most important being the possibility of improving brain health and cognition. It may be possible for Alpha GPC to improve memory formation and enhance learning ability. The possible memory enhancement benefits from alpha GPC may actually restore memory, but only in certain situations. Alpha GPC can also raise dopamine levels, which benefits brain function significantly.
Differences Between Citicoline and Alpha GPC Benefits
Now that you know what each compound is and what benefits each could provide, you may wonder what the differences are between them. At first glance, both appear to do the same thing in regard to overall brain function and mental acuity. There are, however, some differences to how those benefits are achieved. For example, alpha GPC and citicoline have different metabolism processes. As alpha GPC breaks down, acetylcholine is released as a byproduct, where as citicoline serves as a derivative of the same chemical.
Alpha GPC may also have a number of interesting side effects that citicoline doesn’t have. Taking alpha GPC could lead to improved vitality and increased strength as it helps muscles recover after exercise. Alpha GPC may also increase the production of growth hormone in the human body while at the same time acting as something of a weak stimulant.
Citicoline, on the other hand, may have other benefits that alpha GPC does not. One of the most talked about is the possibility of amplifying the impact of other nootropics. For this reason, many people consider citicoline a definite inclusion in any supplementation program.
Which Should You Choose?
With so many identical benefits, many people wonder which compound they should choose between citicoline and alpha GPC if they want to increase their choline use. The truth is that both work well, so using both at the same time is often what is recommended. That’s why many dietary supplements, like Qualia, offer both as part of their package of ingredients. There’s no need to stress over which one might be better than the other. Instead, you can take advantage of the benefits of both.
DMHA – what’s in a Name?
In chemistry, there is a very specific set of guidelines for naming molecules so that there is no ambiguity known as the IUPAC system. The name 2-aminoisoheptane does not describe just one molecule, but multiple variations of that molecule.
let’s break it down by parts:
Heptane means there are 7 total carbons in the molecule. The term ?iso? means that there is a methyl group that branches out of the linear carbon chain. For isoheptane, that methyl group can be either on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th carbon in the chain of 6 carbons (6 carbons plus the 1 methyl group is 7 carbons for heptane). The only part we know for sure is that there is an amine group on carbon 2.
So, the most accurate name for the structure would be 2-amino-5-methylhexane or 5-methyl-2-hexanamine. But, that is not the molecule that is found in nature and what most companies are using. To add to the confusion even more, the actual molecule found in nature in Kigelia Africana fruit extract is 2-amino-6-methylheptane, or 2-aminoisooctane (because now there are 8 total carbons, not 7).
Somewhere along the way, DMHA was also coined for this compound, I believe by Bruce Kneller which stands for 1,5-dimethylhexanamine. This doesn’t specifically tell you where the amine group is, but its catchy and marketable, especially as a DMAA replacement. This is usually the molecule found in your supplements.
There is also a 2-amino-5-methylheptane that is found in nature in the bark of the Juglans regia tree. However, due to cost, most companies use 2-amino-6-methylheptane in their products.
So, now that we are all talking about the same molecule, 2-amino-6-methylheptane or DMHA, what do we actually know about it? Well, it was investigated as a nasal decongestant (as was DMAA) in the 1950s. In fact, it was the active ingredient in the decongestant Eskays Oralator that contained 350mg of it!
There is not a lot of human data for DMHA, but there are some animal pharmacology papers that help shed some light on how it works in the body. In a 1952 study in dogs, tested various octlyamines similar in structure to DMHA showed that these compounds had a similar mechanism of action of amphetamine, but with less stimulation and cardiac activity.
As you can see when comparing structures of DMHA, DMAA and amphetamine, you’ll notice that all the compounds have a polar amine group on carbon 2 and then have an extremely lipophilic (greasy) carbon chain/ring. This is known as amphiphilic (containing polar and nonpolar sections) which allow it to readily cross the blood-brain barrier.
DMHA also possesses a methyl group on the alpha carbon that stericly hinders monoamine oxidase, which should give it a similar half-life to DMAA or amphetamine (both half-lives are around 9-11hr). Also, based on its similar structure to DMAA, DMHA should act as a monoamine releasing agent (MRA) of catecholamines such as dopamine and norepinephrine.
An MRA is taken up by transcellular catecholamine channels and the primary location for action is the terminal nerve ends that extend from the sympathetic nervous system to organs like your heart, kidneys, and vasculature nerves. This is where MRAs cause a localized release of norepinephrine which subsequently increases heart rate and renal vasodilaion (via beta-1 adrenergic activity) and peripheral vasoconstriction (via alpha-1 adrenergic activity).
This explains the side effects normally felt when you take a very strong stimulant like DMAA or DMH. When DMHA binds to the trace amine associated receptor 1, it will temporarily prevent the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine into the presynaptic nerve.
By blocking their reuptake, catecholamines like dopamine and norepinephrine stay active longer in your body and produces the feelings of euphoria and wakefulness (from the dopamine and norepinephrine).
vitamin b5 (Pantothenic acid)-
Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, is one of the most important vitamins for human life. It’s necessary for making blood cells, and it helps you convert the food you eat into energy.
Vitamin B5 is one of eight B vitamins. All B vitamins help you convert the protein, carbohydrates, and fats you eat into energy. B vitamins are also needed for:
- healthy skin, hair, and eyes
- proper functioning of the nervous system and liver
- healthy digestive tract
- making red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body
- making sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands
Octopamine is one of the lesser-known nootropic compounds that is starting to now receive more attention. User reviews say that it gives them more energy, makes it easier to focus, enhances motivation and is effective as a wakefulness promoter.
However, there is limited research into its effects on humans. More research is needed on safety and efficacy before determining whether to use it.
Octopamine is an endogenous biogenic amine that is closely related to the hormone norepinephrine. It is an organic compound that contains a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair (or a valence electron pair without bonding or sharing with other atoms).
It is a derivative of ammonia with the hydrogen being at least partially replaced. This supplement is derived from tyramine, a natural amino acid that is found in foods like tomatoes and liver.
The chemical was discovered in 1948 by the Italian scientists Vittorrio Erspamer within the salivary glands of the octopus (hence its unique name).
Octopamine Hcl (norepinephrine) is best known as an effective ephedrine alternative, claiming to boost energy while reduce weight in bodybuilding industry for weight loss purpose. In addition, many users believe octopamine hcl is a good nootropic compound that makes our brain easy to focus, enhances motivation as a wakefulness promoter.
According to Wikipedia, octopamine hcl (β,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine), closely associated with the hormone norepinephrine released during stress and accountable for the physiological changes, is a biogenic amine present in vertebrates and invertebrates. Octopamine is a potent ergogenic ingredient produced via the amino acid tyramine by way of the enzyme tyramine beta-hydroxylase.
Octopamine has been identified to be in high levels within the hypothalamus of vertebrates. Octopamine was originally obtained from Octopus, and that’ how it get its name “octopamine”. However, nowadays octopamine can also be found in a number of plants, especially from Bitter Orange (citrus aurantium). Octopamine hydrochloride can also be created synthetically from the lab through processing tyramine, a chemical substance derived from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine(4-hydroxyphenylalanine). To be honest, All the octopamine hcl in the weight loss supplements used in the dietary supplement are purely synthetic from labs, and the cost for natural plant source is too high to be applied to bulk quantity usage in sports nutrition supplements.
How does octopamine hcl work? To be simple, octopamine functions by breaking down fat cells within the body. Some researchers assume that Octopamine probably performs inside the norepinephrine systems in the brain, having the capability to interact with norepinephrine receptors. Like Ephedrine, Octopamine hcl stimulates Beta3-adrenoceptors free of the problems related to central nervous system(CNS) stimulation. In mammalian studies,octopamine has been proven to increase metabolism, stimulate lipolysis, and promote insulin sensitivity. Octopamine inherits the positive properties of Ephedrine, while it is not a central nervous system stimulant and is free from dangerous side-effects such as dramatic heart rate and blood pressure increases.Octopamine may well increase norepinephrine levels. Data from some studies has remarked that Octopamine actually releases norepinephrine, and this effect of Octopamine might be far more significant than its potential to replicate norepinephrine in your brain.
The key benefits of octopamine hcl supplements include: energy boost, weight loss, and versatile bodybuilding benefits. Of course, its capability to losing weight is the primary focus of both supplement manufacturers and end users.
Octopamine is really a catalyst to movement or energy by initiating what are named as beta3 receptors which considerably boosts the body to lose fat.
Octopamine has additionally been suggested for the wake/sleep cycle. Again, norepinephrine systems are from the effective energy potential from the nervous system. Octopamine, like norepinephrine, connects to adrenergic receptors, growing wakefulness. Octopamine is believed to create very energizing effects, which could raise the metabolic process, and as a result, burn body fat.
Many supplement consumers use Octopamine for body slimming and also to keep a healthy weight. This really is influenced by the truth that it releases norepinephrine and works similar to it in the body.Octopamine could be coupled with other supplements to go with exercise and a healthy diet plan to be able to slim down. Elevated amounts of norepinephrine happen to be proven to improve satiety and lower body fat,which plays a significant role in lots of weight reduction and weight loss systems.
Octopamine hcl & Bodybuilding
Sports athletes that need to prevent muscle loss while going on a diet, like muscle builders and fitness sports athletes, might benefit considerably out of this supplement. This really is because of the believing that Octopamine prevents the introduction to protein for energy. This can lead to protecting very difficult built muscle tissue.
With potential elevated body fat loss and thermogenesis, it’s possible to observe how Octopamine may be of great interest for sports athletes and bodybuilders attempting to shed weight and reduce their body fat percentage. Additionally, because of its resemblance of noradrenaline, it might end up being ergogenic for physical performance.
N-Phenylacetyl-L-Prolylglycine Ethyl Ester-
Is a potent receptor site modulator and nootropic. Studies indicate its ability to increase memory and attention span, reduce worry and improve mood, and exhibit neuroprotective qualities.
N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester
- Racetam like properties (NMDA receptor modulator) and Ampakine like properties (AMPA glutamate receptor modulator)
- In the vicinity of 1,000 times the potency of piracetam
- Upregulates neurotrophin factors NGF and BDNF involved in neurogenesis and long term memory
- Acetylcholine and glutamate sensitizing effect[4,5]
- Modulates EEG patterns in ways considered positive for calm alertness
- Neuroprotective effects from oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity
- Anxiolytic effect – may be due to hippocampal regulation
- Cycloprolylglycine precursor – an endogenous anxiolytic neuropeptide
 Vorobyov V, et al (2011). Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors. Brain Res Bull, 85(3-4):123-32. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.02.011
 Solntseva EI et al (1997). The effects of piracetam and its novel peptide analogue GVS-111 on neuronal voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels. Gen Pharmacol, 29(1):85-9. doi: 10.1016/S0306-3623(96)00529-0
 Ostrovskaya RU et al (2008). Noopept stimulates the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus. Bull Exp Biol Med, 146(3):334-7. doi: 10.1007/s10517-008-0297
 Firstova IuIu, et al (2011). Studying specific effects of nootropic drugs on glutamate receptors in the rat brain. Eksp Klin Farmakol, 74(1):6-10. PMID: 21476267
 Ostrovskaia RU, et al (2001). Behavioral and electrophysiological analysis of the choline-positive effect of nootropic dipeptide acylproline (GVS-111). Eksp Klin Farmakol, 64(2):11-4. PMID: 11548439
 Andreeva NA, et al (2000). Neuroprotective properties of nootropic dipeptide GVS-111 in in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation, glutamate toxicity and oxidative stress. Bull Exp Biol Med, 130(10):969-72. doi: 10.1023/2FA.3A1002828707337
 Kondratenko RV, et al (2010). Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells. Neurosci Lett, 476(2):70-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.04.005
 Gudasheva TA et al (1997). The major metabolite of dipeptide piracetam analogue GVS-111 in rat brain and its similarity to endogenous neuropeptide cyclo-L-prolylglycine. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 22(3):245-52. doi: 10.1007/2FBF03189814
Huperzine A – Huperzine-A is a naturally occurring alkaloid found in the plant Huperzia serrata, also known as Chinese Club Moss. Huperzine-A has been used for many years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat many different conditions including swelling, fever, and schizophrenia. As a supplement, Huperzine-A is often used to enhance memory, focus, and learning ability. Huperzine-A may be of benefit to students and in treating age-related cognitive decline.
Huperzine-A is an inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which breaks down acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. Huperzine-A is able to cross the blood-brain barrier so that it can exert its effects in the brain. In addition to its effects on acetylcholine levels, huperzine-A may also increase nerve growth factor (an protein that is important for the growth and sustenance of nerve cells), however more research is definitely needed on this topic. Anecdotal evidence has supported the brain-boosting effects of huperzine-A, with users both young and old reporting increased mental clarity and memory. Huperzine-A shows promise as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, and functions similarly to certain drugs used to treat cognitive decline.